Sunday, February 23, 2020
Reducing Juvenile delinquency - Research Paper Example To reduce juvenile delinquency, considerable attention should be accorded to the adolescents in order to create a suitable environment for their influence. This paper seeks to illustrate various aspects associated with juvenile delinquency and measures taken to reduce incidences. Juvenile delinquency illustrates a violation of the law committed by a child under the legal age, which surpasses parental control, and thus is subject to legal action. Such violations of the law are not punishable by death or life imprisonment, but dwell on rehabilitating the offenders to become law-abiding citizens. Institutions such as juvenile detention centers and courts assist in dispensation of legal interventions based on specified procedures in the legal system. Furthermore, a juvenile delinquent is an under aged person who has been found guilty of a crime, and is protected by the law as a minor; hence cannot bears no responsibility for the crime (Snyder and Sickmund, 2006). However, based on the na ture and seriousness of a crime, the age of criminal responsibility is reduced according to state laws, in this regard, the person cannot be tried as an adult. Negative behaviors among children and young adults contribute juvenile delinquency, which is known to cause widespread problems in society. In recent years, it is estimated that a high percentage of children and adolescents engage activities that are in violation of the law, this has contributed to drop in the average age of first arrests made among young people. This can be attributed to the common notion that juvenile offences are normative adolescent behaviors. However, repeated or chronic offenders are most likely to carry on with the trend away from adolescence and become more and more violent. At a tender age, delinquent behavior involves minor theft, but can evolve to violent acts involving the use of weapons as an individual nears the statutory age. Other delinquent behaviors include bullying, truancy, vandalism, assa ult, gangs, and sexual offences. It is for this reason that persons under the statutory age can be charged as adults depending on the severity of the crime. National statistics indicate an increase in the number of juvenile delinquency cases owing to numerous social factors within the society. Juvenile delinquency has its impacts on the victims as well as the society; damages incurred by the victim may be in the form of injury or loss of property, which results in loss productivity during that period. The victim may also incur medical expenses resulting from inflicted injuries during an attack. Psychological trauma is also common among victims and the society. Agnew suggests that when an individual is blocked from attaining a positive goal, it causes strain, which forces one to seek alternative modes of compensation (Agnew, 2005). Similarly, perpetrators of juvenile acts may experience low self-esteem and thus increase their activities to compensate for their loss. There are a numbe r of factors contributing to the heightened rates of delinquency in the society. Among the contributing factors are substance abuse, physical abuse and poverty. At a tender age, most adolescents have monetary access through allowance accorded to them as well as jobs from surrounding business premises. In this regard, drugs and alcohol can be procured with ease given the opportunity. Substance abuse impairs judgment, which may result in further violation of the
Thursday, February 6, 2020
Evaluate Sainsbury plc's financial strategy - Essay Example Sainsbury's is headquartered in Holborn Circus. To ensure that its products are effectively distributed in the local and neighboring markets, the supermarket has established a number of subsidiaries in the UK market. Under the leadership of David Tyler and Justin King the company chairman and chief executive respectively, SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s has more than 150,000 employees. This has resulted to a significant increment on the company revenue that stood at ?21.102Ã billion in 2011. This paper, evaluate Sainsbury plcÃ¢â¬â¢s financial strategy by analyzing its financial performance in the last few years. To expand its customerÃ¢â¬â¢s base and generate more revenue that is needed to undertake its operations, Sainsbury's has opened a number of stores, supermarkets and a significant number of hypermarkets. To ensure that the supermarket is financial strong to cater for its short-term and long-term liabilities, Sainsbury's operates Sainsbury's Bank whose key objectives is to sell financ ial products. One of the major factors that Sainsbury's has adopted to enhance its financial performance was the formation of a joint venture with Lloyds Banking Company among other firms. Major strategies that Sainsbury's has adopted to strengthen its financial position is merger and acquisitions (Adizes 35). As depicted earlier, the supermarket generated total revenue of ?21.102Ã billion in 2011. ... ncial Statement 2012 indicate that as a result of the increase in the investment, the net debt of the company increased from ?1,814 million in 2011 to ?1,980 million in 2012. This was however, offset by reasonable cash that was generated from leasebacks and sales. Table indicating cash generated from operations and net cash from operating activities by SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s in 2011 and in 2012 financial years. Figures are in ? million. Cash generated from operations 1291 1388 Interest paid (142) (126) Corporation tax paid (82) (158) Net cash from operating activities 1067 854 Net cash used in investing activities (883) (902) Issue of shares proceeds 14 17 New debt 391 45 Borrowings repayments (65) (79) Dividends paid (285) (269) Source- SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s Annual Report and Financial Statement 2012 Financing of Sainsbury operations According to the board of the directors, SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s is focused at effectively managing its finances by maintaining appropriate stand-by liquidity, red ucing the risks of refinancing and diversifying the sources of funds. Two of the major long-term loans that are vital in the operations of SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s include loans of ?1,036 million and ?843 million that are due on 2018 and 2031 respectively. The company has provided its property assets as the security for the loans. Other key sources of funds includes unsecured loans of ?499 million, finances leases of ?143 million, and convertible bonds issued to the public amounting to ?190 million. Based on the profitability of the company, the board is focused at repaying the loans in the next five years. In order to have adequate cash to cater for short term and urgent liabilities, SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s maintains a revolving credit facility amounting to ?690 millions (Modigliani and Miller 263). According to the 2012
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Childhood Essay Though many are of the view that childhood is the happiest time of a persons life I do not think we can generalize it is so. Of cause childhood is a very enjoyable phase in a mans life which is free from many responsibilities and challenges of the adulthood. However I believe there are several conditions that need to be satisfied for a happy childhood. First and foremost, a child should have loving and caring parents who could provide physical, emotional, social and intellectual needs of their child. How many children have such parents today? There are thousands of children raised by foster homes or orphanages. Most of these children have never experienced the love of their mothers or fathers. In fact many a them even do not know who their parents are. These children are often deprived from many privileges and rights of a normal child. We could also see that the numbers of single parents are ever increasing due to various socio economic reasons. It is a known fact that single parents have to struggle hard to raise their children without the help of their partner and in most cases they fail to provide necessary requirements of their children, especially with respect to emotional factors. The security of the child is another important factor that decides whether the childhood is a happy one or not. In my country there was a civil war which spanned for thirty years and fortunately became to an end in the last year. The children who were born during these thirty years of war were raised under its dark shadows. In most families, the fathers had to join the army to fight against the terrorists. Many did not return home leaving endless problems for their families. There were frequent bomb blasts directed on civilians by the terrorists and in many instances children were victims. Also the children in the areas under terrorist control were abducted by the terrorists to strengthen their carders. These children were completely deprived from all their rights as children. They were neither allowed to be with their loved ones nor to attend school. Instead they were given a gun and trained to fire at the enemy. They were taught to hate not to love. How can we say that the childhood is the happiest time for such children?
Monday, January 20, 2020
It has been years since I wrote anything at all, although people do see me writing odd pieces of music. But this time I am writing about my past, the past that seems so far away and forgotten. I know that this account is hardly going to interest anyone, but I do need to share my feelings with someone, or in this case, with something. People see me as a berserk creature talking garrulously of her past that probably never existed. And that is the belief of ignorance. They pity me, speak sympathetically and listen to me the gibbering about my past and my feelings. But do they really want to know about my feelings? No they don't, but if they did I would never tell them. Night after night, I sit ruminating about my long-forgotten past. And flashes of it just appear out of nowhere. A young cheerful, little girl with red hair, playing in an overgrown garden with her friends and looming against the sky was her very own castle. It wasn't much but at least it was hers. So innocent she looked, having no clue of what her future might hold. She lived happily with her parents and playing with her headless dolls, while occasionally listening admiringly to her mother playing her tiara. How she longed to play just like her mother. And she slowly learned to play it. She had dreams all right, not about the tiara, but completely different from it. Dreams just like a girl of her own age would have. Dreams of her Prince Charming sweeping her off her feet and taking her away to Paradise...to the land of eternal happiness and live happily ever after. After years of patiently waiting, he finally entered her life. And a Prince Charming he was- with dark lean features and as tall as a giant. She wasn't sure whether or not he was her Prince, but what she was sure about was that she loved him. Loved him with all her heart, and was ready to go to the darkest corner of the world just for him. After a short love affair the young couple married. But what the young wife found out after the marriage struck her much harder than a lightning bolt. It was like an explosion. He was a drunkard! And she couldn't do anything about it. She was shattered and was like a broken soul. All her dreams she had of their happy future together seemed so far away.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
This document forms a template for organisations to compose a policy for Grievance. The working is largely standard but there is the opportunity for organisations to personalise the policy. This document is divided into three columns 1. Heading: for each sub section of the policy 2. Explanation: why the section is there and what it should contain 3. Section content: contains the wording to be used in the policy which can be added to/adjusted according to the needs and practices within the organisation. Instructions: Once you have completed content in the third column (headed Ã¢â¬ËSection ContentÃ¢â¬â¢), you can delete this introduction and the middle column (writing is in blue) leaving you with you policy. Some organisations may prefer a different format (e.g. non tabular), in which case, the content can be cut and pasted as required. The final policy will usually be approximately 3 sided of A4 in length. Name of organisation: Introduction This section sets out the way in which any grievances by employees against the organisation will be handled. Grievances which are raised by employees typically refer to matters relating to employment e.g. terms and conditions, job issues, work relationships. They are matters which it is reasonable to expect line management to be able to resolve. Creative Envelope Solutions recognises that from time to time employees may wish to seek for grievances relating to their employment. In this respect it is our policy to encourage free communication between employees and Clayton Down M.D. to ensure that problems can be resolved quickly to the satisfaction of all concerned. Principles (optional) Grievance Procedures must comply with the Arbitration and Conciliation Service (ACAS) Code of Practice 2009 and must follow the basic steps outlined below: Informal discussions Formal discussions Appeal Principles are guidelines on best practice for dealing with grievances. Publication of these guidelines is optional for this written procedure but even if you do not publish these principles, they must represent the way in which grievances are handled in order to comply with the ACAS Code. For point 5, there are three options for the person who would chair any appeal meeting. You may prefer to either select one of the following of keep options open and insert all three options: A manager more senior than the manager who took the decision at step 2 A trustee A suitable qualified external person Note: Where a second level of manager could be available to hear an appeal, Trustees should decide whether or not they wish to appoint one of their members to take all appeals as final arbiters of any dispute. This procedure sets out the informal and formal stages which must be followed to comply with the Arbitration and Conciliation Advisory Service (ACAS) Code of Practice 2009. In addition, the following principles will be followed in the consideration of all grievances under this procedure. 1. Each step must be followed through without unreasonable delay. 2. Both employee and employer must take reasonable steps to attend each meeting under the procedure and will have the opportunity to state their case. 3. Meeting will be at a reasonable time and location. 4. All relevant information will be provided to both employer and employee in advance of any meeting under the procedure. 5. The appeal meeting at step 3 will be chaired by Clayton Down M.D. 6. If the employee of their companion is disabled, reasonable adjustment will be made to enable them to participate fully. 7. Confidentiality will be maintained. Only those who need to know about grievance will be informed. 8. After the grievance and regardless of the outcome both parties will endeavour to work together in aÃ positive manner. Representation It is necessary for the statement in this section to be published as part of the procedure as it relates to the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s right to be represented or accompanied. It is wise to specify and limit who can accompany (if not, parents, solicitors etc could get involved at this stage). Even if your organisation does not recognise Trade Unions, employees may still belong to one and therefore it is wise to leave in the reference to being accompanied by a trade union representative. The employee has the right to be accompanied by a work colleague or trade union representative at the meetings at step 2 and step 3. This representative may take notes and seek clarification of any issues that arise. Informal Discussions This section encourages an informal approach to resolving grievances when they first occur. If you have a grievance about your employment you should speak to Clayton Down M.D. about it and discuss it informally to see if it can be resolved there and then. It is hoped that the majority of concerns will be resolved in this way. Formal Procedure This section describes what the employee and the organisation must do to complete formal consideration of the grievance. Steps 2 and 3 refer to response within a specific timescale and 5 working days is recommended. Option of who Step 3 Ã¢â¬â Appeal: see point 5 in Principles above. If the grievance is not settles through this internal process, organisations may request help and advice from ACAS regarding the use of mediation. Step 1 Ã¢â¬â Written statement by employee If you feel that the matter has not been resolved through informal discussions, you should set out your grievance in full in writing to your manager so that its consideration takes place in a more formal setting. Step 2 Ã¢â¬â Meeting Your STET will arrange to meet with you to endeavour to find a satisfactory solution and will aim to give you a written response within (insert timescale). If this is not possible, he or she will inform you of the reason for the delay and when you can expect a response. Step 3 Ã¢â¬â Appeal If you are not satisfied with the response you may put your grievance in writing to (insert title). That individual will arrange to meet with you and will give you a response within (insert timescale). If it is not possible, he or she will inform you of the reason for the delay and when you can expect a response. Step 3 is the final stage of the procedure and there is no further right of appeal. ACAS recommends organisations to consider using mediation if appropriate. Footnote: As recommended in the ACAS Code, where and employee raises a grievance during a disciplinary process, the disciplinary process may be temporarily suspended in order to deal with the grievance. However, where the disciplinary and grievance cases are related, it may be appropriate to deal with both cases concurrently.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
The materialistic wants of people often lead them to act in imprudent ways. This is especially true in the cases of Jason and George Tesman, main characters from the plays of Medea and Hedda Gabler, who display the folly of blindly adhering to aesthetic standards. (In this essay, an aesthetic standard is the placement of value on worldly goods and sensationalistic feeling). Acting on such a standard creates a tunnel vision that limits oneÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts and prevents one from seeing anything other than that which is directly beneficial. This tunnel vision inhibits Jason and George Tesman from perceiving reality as it is and holds them captive to their own specious view of events. Furthermore, it negatively affects their lives as well as thoseÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This suggests Tesman views Hedda to be a Ã¢â¬Å"trophy wifeÃ¢â¬ , one whom he can proudly display around town, and that he chose to marry her for this purpose rather than for reasons of love. Moreover, Tesman go es on to say that he has Ã¢â¬Å"several good friendsÃ¢â¬ ¦who would like to stand in my shoesÃ¢â¬ (Ibsen 4). One might extrapolate from this statement that Tesman was in a competition for Hedda and he cherished having won the race, outdoing others along the way. Both Tesman and Jason succumb to the blinding power of aesthetic standards. They are unable to see the potentially deleterious consequences of their actions. Jason, infatuated with his lie and desire for higher social status, does not perceive MedeaÃ¢â¬â¢s forthcoming passionate revenge, and George, stuck to ambiguous thoughts and material wants, cannot imagine the extent to which Hedda is controlling their marriage. Blindfolded by their acquisitive nature, the characters fail to see that the light at the end of the tunnel is in fact the train of their demise. The actual consequences of the characters decisions are far worse than either can imagine. In response to JasonÃ¢â¬â¢s deceitfulness, Medea concocts a horrific plan to kill his newly-wedded bride, father-in-law, and two children. When all is done, only a few survivors remain. Although Jason is among those spared, his misery is great. In grief, he reveals his short-sightedness, caused by an insatiable thirst for power, cost him immensely: Ã¢â¬Å"You hatefulShow MoreRelatedGender Stereotypes in Literature1570 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesself-sacrificing mothers and wives and that they are dependent on men. This is seen in the play Medea, set in Greece during a time that was dominated by men. Women could only, under exceptional conditions, obtain a divorce yet any Greek man could rid himself of a wife simply by publicly renouncing his marriage. The ideal woman was spoken of as little as possible among men, whether for good or for ill. Hedda Gabler is set in Norway during a period of man y changes. In 1854 women were given the right toRead MoreEssay Prompts4057 Words Ã |Ã 17 Pages Light in August Anna Karenina Long DayÃ¢â¬â¢s Journey into the Night Antigone Lord Jim Beloved Macbeth Crime and Punishment Medea Death of a Salesman Moby-Dick Ethan Frome Oedipus Rex Faust Phedre Fences Ragtime For Whom the Bell Tolls Sent for You Yesterday Frankenstein Tess of the DÃ¢â¬â¢Urbervilles Hedda Gabler Things Fall Apart King Lear 2003 (Form B): Novels and plays often depict characters caught between colliding cultures-national, regional